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In part A, you will hear shorts conversations between two people. After each conversation, you will hear a question about the conversation. The conversations and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the answer you have chosen. Now begin work on the questions.
In part B, you will hear longer conversations. After each conversation, you will be asked some questions. The conversations and questions will be spoken just one time. They will not be written out for you, so you will have to listen carefully in order to understand and remember what the speaker says.
When you hear a question, read the four possible answers provided and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Then, find the number of the problem and fill in the space that corresponds to the answer you have chosen.
In part C, you will hear several talks. After each talk, you will be asked some questions. The talks and questions will be spoken just one time. They will not be written out for you, so you will have to listen carefully in order to understand and remember what the speaker says.
When you hear a question, read the four possible answers provided and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Then, find the number of the problem and fill in the space that corresponds to the answer you have chosen
In Part D, there are 15 incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence, you will see four words or phrases. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
Amanda Way's career as a social reformer ____ in 1851 when, at an antislavery meeting in Indiana, she called for a state woman's rights convention.
The celesta, an orchestral percussion instrument, resembles ___
Thomas Paine, ___, wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet that identified the American colonies with the cause of liberty.
Although beavers rarely remain submerged for more than two minutes, they can stay underwater ___ fifteen minutes before having to surface for air.
Protein digestion begins in the stomach ___ ends in the small intestine.
When natural gas burns, its ___ into atoms of carbon and hydrogen.
___ ballet dancers learn five basic positions for the arms and feet.
Some colonies of byrozoans, small marine animals, form ___ with trailing stems.
Ruth Bader Ginsbur argued six women's rights cases before the United States Supreme Court in 1970's, ___.
Natural selection is defined as the process ___ the course of evolution by preserving those traits best adapted for an organism's survival.
___ 363 miles between the cities of Albany and Buffallo in New York State, the Eric Canal helped link the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes.
The chief sources of B12, a water-soluble vitamin ___ stored in the body, include meat, milk and eggs.
___ is rooted in experiments in iron and steel conducted in the nineteenth century.
The primary source of energy for tropical cyclones is the latent heat released when ___.
Manufacturing is Canada's most important economic activity, ___ 17 percent of the workforce.
In the following questions, identify the word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct.
The outer layer of the heart, called the pericardium, forms a sac in what the heart lies.
Wood from the ash tree becomes extremely flexibly when it is exposed to steam.
The ability to talk is one of the skill that make humans different from the rest of the animal world.
In plane geometry, the sum of the internal angles of any triangle has always equal to 180 degrees.
Polar bears are bowlegged and pigeon-toed, adaptations that enable this massive animals to maintain their balance as they walk.
Caves are formed by the chemical or action mechanical of water on soluble rock, by volcanic activity, and by earthquakes.
Celery, an edible plant is having long stalks topped with feathery leaves, grows best in cool water.
The first fiction writer in the United States to achieve international fame was Washington Irving, who wrote many stories, included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow".
Three fundamental aspects of forest conversation are the protection of immature trees, the use of proper harvesting methods, and provide for an environment that supports reproduction.
For each enzyme reaction there is an optimum temperature which maximum efficiency is achieved.
Adolescence is a transitional stage in human development from the beginning of puberty to the attainment of the emotion, social, and physical maturity of adulthood.
The people native to the northwest coast of North American have long be known for wood carving of stunning beauty and extraordinary quality.
Colonial Efforts to manufacture glass at Jamestown-later attempts near Philadelphia and Boston-failed despite the abundant of fuel and good raw materials.
The orbit of a celestial body is usually in the shape of ellipse.
Chicago is the third larges publishing center in the United States, exceeding only by New York City and San Fransisco.
North American bison differ from domestic cattle in have 14 rather than 13 pairs of ribs.
Female sea turtles, before laying her eggs, swis as much as 2,000 kilometers to return to the beaches where they themselves were hatched.
Water is the only substance that occur at ordinary temperatures in all three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.
Despite the growth of manufacturing and other industries, the economy of the state of Texas has remained heavily dependence on oil and gas.
Lyndon B. Johnson was the only United States President who oath of office was administered by a woman Judge Sarah Tilghman Hughes.
It took more than fourteen years to carve the faces of four United States Presidents into the granite cliffs to Mount Rushmore, South Dakota.
Charles Bullfinch was the architect who design the original red brick core of the State House in Boston.
Rarely has a technological development had as great an impact on as much aspect of social, economic, and cultural development as the growth of electronics.
Lowell, Massachusetts, known as the "Spindle City" since 1822 when its first textile mills were built, attracted worldwide attention as textile center.
Strange Victory, Sara Teasdale's smallest and most perfect collection of poems appear in print 1933.
10. The word "undergoing" in last paragraph is closest in meaning to ___
In this part, you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. Choose the best answers to each question.
As Philadelphia grew from a small town into a city in the first half of the eighteenth century, it became an increasingly important marketing centre for a vast and growing agricultural hinterland. Market days saw the crowded city even more crowded, as fanners from within a radius of 24 or more kilometres brought their sheep, cows, pigs, vegetables, cider, and other products for direct sale to the townspeople. The High Street Market was continuously enlarged throughout the period until 1736 when it reached from Front Street to Third. By 1745, New Market was opened on Second Street between Pine and Cedar. The next year the Callowhill Market began operation. Along with market days, the institution of twice-yearly fairs persisted in Philadelphia even after similar trading days had been discontinued in other colonial cities. The fairs provided a means of bringing handmade goods from outlying places to would-be buyers in the city. Linens and stockings from Germantown, for example, were popular items.
Auctions were another popular form of occasional trade. Because of the competition, retail merchants opposed these as well as the fairs. Although governmental attempts to eradicate fairs and auctions were less than successful, the ordinary course of economic development was on the merchants' side, as increasing business specialization became the order of the day. Export merchants became differentiated from their importing counterparts, and specialty shops began to appear in addition to general stores selling a variety of goods.
One of the reasons Philadelphia's merchants generally prospered was because the surrounding area was undergoing tremendous economic and demographic growth. They did their business, after all, in the capital city of the province. Not only did they cater to the governor and his circle, but citizens from all over the colony came to the capital for legislative sessions of the assembly and council and the meetings of the courts of justice.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
2. It can be infferred from the passage that new markets opened in Philadelphia because ___
3. The owrd "hinterland" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ___
4. The word it in " ..., when it reached from Front Street to Third." refers to ___
5. The word "persisted" in "...persisted Philadelphia even after similar trading days ..." paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ___
6. According to the passage, fairs in Philadelphia were held ___
7. It can be inferred that the author mentions "Linens and stockings" in last sentence paragraph 1 to show that they were items that ____
8. The word "eradicate" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ____
9. What does the author mean by stating in paragraph 2 that "economic development was on the merchant's side"?
Aviculturists, people who raise birds for commercial sale, have not yet learned how to simulate the natural incubation of parrot eggs in the wild. They continue to look for better ways to increase egg production and to improve chick survival rates. When parrots incubate their eggs in the wild, the temperature and humidity of the nest are controlled naturally. Heat is transferred from the bird's skin to the top portion of the eggshell, leaving the sides and bottom of the egg at a cooler temperature. This temperature gradient may be vital to successful hatching. Nest construction can contribute to this temperature gradient. Nests of loosely arranged sticks, rocks, or dirt are cooler in temperature at the bottom where the egg contacts the nesting material. Such nests also act as humidity regulators by allowing rain to drain into the bottom sections of the nest so that the eggs are not in direct contact with the water. As the water that collects in the bottom of the nest evaporates, the water vapor rises and is heated by the incubating bird, which adds significant humidity to the incubation environment.
In artificial incubation programs, aviculturists remove eggs from the nests of parrots and incubate them under laboratory conditions. Most commercial incubators heat the eggs fairly evenly from top to bottom, thus ignoring the bird's method of natural incubation, and perhaps reducing the viability and survivability of the hatching chicks. When the incubators are not used, aviculturists sometimes suspend wooden boxes outdoors to use as nests in which to place eggs. In areas where the weather can become cold after eggs are laid, it is very important to maintain a deep foundation of nesting material to act as an insulator against the cold bottom of the box. If eggs rest against the wooden bottom in extremely cold weather conditions, they can become chilled to a point where the embryo can no longer survive. Similarly, these boxes should be protected from direct sunlight to avoid high temperatures that are also fatal to the growing embryo. Nesting material should be added in sufficient amounts to avoid both extreme temperature situations mentioned above and assure that the eggs have a soft, secure place to rest.
11. What is the main idea of the passage?
12. The word they in the 2nd sentence refers to ___
13. According to paragraph 2, when the temperature of the sides and bottom of the egg are cooler than the top, then ____
14. According to paragraph 2, sticks, rocks, or dirt are used to ___
15. According to paragraph 2, the construction of the nest allows water to ___
17. The word "suspend" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ___
18. The word "fatal" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ___
19. The word "secure" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ___
20. According to paragraph 2, a deep foundation of nesting material provides ___
21. Which of the following is a problem with commercial incubators?
22. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
The mineral particles found in soil range in size from microscopic clay particles to large boulders. The most abundant particles—sand, silt, and clay—are the focus of examination in studies of soil texture. Texture is the term used to describe the composite sizes of particles in a soil sample, typically several representative handrails. To measure soil texture, the sand, silt, and clay particles are sorted out by size and weight. The weights of each size are then expressed as a percentage of the sample weight.
In the field, soil texture can be estimated by extracting a handful of sod and squeezing the damp soil into three basic shapes; (1) cast, a lump formed by squeezing a sample in a clenched fist; (2) thread, a pencil shape formed by rolling soil between the palms; and (3) ribbon, a flattish shape formed by squeezing a small sample between the thumb and index finger. The behavioral characteristics of the soil when molded into each of these shapes if they can be formed at all, provides the basis for a general textural classification. The behavior of the soil in the hand test is determined by the amount of clay in the sample. Clay particles are highly cohesive, and when dampened, behave as a plastic. Therefore the higher the clay content in a sample, the more refined and durable the shapes into which it can be molded.
Another method of determining soil texture involves the use of devices called sediment sieves, screens built with a specified mesh size. When the soil is filtered through a group of sieves, each with a different mesh size, the particles become grouped in corresponding size categories. Each category can be weighed to make a textural determination. Although sieves work well for silt, sand, and larger particles, they are not appropriate for clay particles. Clay is far too small to sieve accurately; therefore, in soils with a high proportion of clay, the fine particles are measured on the basis of their settling velocity when suspended in water. Since clays settle so slowly, they are easily segregated from sand and silt. The water can be drawn off and evaporated, leaving a residue of clay, which can be weighed.
23. What does the passage mainly discuss?
24. The author mentions “several representative handrails” in first paragraph in order to show
25. The phrase “sorted out” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
26. It can be inferred that the names of the three basic shapes mentioned in paragraph 2 reflect ___
The word “dampened” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ____
28. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about a soil sample with little or no clay in it?
29. The word “they” in paragraph 3 refers to ___
30. It can be inferred from the passage that the sediment sieve has an advantage over the hand test in determining soil texture because ___
31. During the procedure described in paragraph 3, when clay particles are placed into water they
32. The word “fine” in last paragraph is closest in meaning to
33. All of the following words are defined in the passage EXCEPT
A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker. The fi rst is the broad area of communication, which includes imparting information by use of language, communicating with a group or an individual, and specialized communication through performance. A person conveys thoughts and ideas through choice of words, by a tone of voice that is pleasant or unpleasant, gentle or harsh, by the rhythm that is inherent within the language itself, and by speech rhythms that are flowing and regular or uneven and hesitant, and fi nally, by the pitch and melody of the utterance. When speaking before a group, a person’s tone may indicate unsureness or fright, confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen, or may belie them. Here the conversant’s tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy, lack of concern or interest, fatigue, anxiety, enthusiasm or excitement, all of which are .usually discernible by the acute listener. Public performance is a manner of communication that is highly specialized with its own techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or gesture. The motivation derived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in combination with the performer’s skills, personality, and ability to create empathy will determine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.
Second, the voice gives psychological clues to a person’s self-image, perception of others, and emotional health. Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confi dent, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits. Also the sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person, for example, a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front. How a speaker perceives the listener’s receptiveness, interest, or sympathy in any given conversation can drastically alter the tone of presentation, by encouraging or discouraging the speaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic sounds of the happy, by constricted and harsh sound of the angry, and by dull and lethargic qualities of the depressed.
34. What does the passage mainly discuss?
35. What does the author mean by stating that “At interpersonal levels, tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen” ?
36. The word “Here” in paragraph 1 refers to ___
37. The word “derived” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
38. Why does the author mention “artistic, political, or pedagogic communication”?
39. According to the passage, an exuberant tone of voice, may be an indication of person’s ___
40. According to the passage, an overconfident front may hide ___
41. The word “drastically” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
42. The word “evidenced” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ___
43. According to the passage, what does a constricted and harsh voice indicate?
As the twentieth century began, the importance of formal education in the United States increased The frontier had mostly disappeared and by 1910 most Americans lived in towns and cities. Industrialization and the bureaucratization of economic life combined with a new emphasis upon credentials and expertise to make schooling increasingly important for economic and social mobility. Increasingly, too, schools were viewed as the most important means of integrating immigrants into American society.
The arrival of a great wave of southern and eastern European immigrants at the turn of the century coincided with and contributed to an enormous expansion of formal schooling. By 1920 schooling to age fourteen or beyond was compulsory in most states, and the school year was greatly lengthened. Kindergartens, vacation schools, extracurricular activities, and vocational education and counseling extended the influence of public schools over the lives of students, many of whom in the larger industrial cities were the children of immigrants. Classes for adult immigrants were sponsored by public schools, corporations, unions, churches, settlement houses, and other agencies.
Reformers early in the twentieth century suggested that education programs should suit the needs of specific populations. Immigrant women were one such population. Schools tried to educate young women so they could occupy productive places in the urban industrial economy, and one place many educators considered appropriate for women was the home.
Although looking after the house and family was familiar to immigrant women, American education gave homemaking a new definition. In preindustrial economies, homemaking had meant the production as well as the consumption of goods, and it commonly included income-producing activities both inside and outside the home, in the highly industrialized early-twentieth-century United States, however, overproduction rather than scarcity was becoming a problem. Thus, the ideal American homemaker was viewed as a consumer rather than a producer. Schools trained women to be consumer homemakers cooking, shopping, decorating, and caring for children “efficiently” in their own homes, or if economic necessity demanded, as employees in the homes of others. Subsequent reforms have made these notions seem quite out-of-date.
44. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that one important factor in the increasing importance of education in the United States was ___
45. The word “means” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ___
46. The phrase “coincided with” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
47. According to the passage, one important change in United States education by the 1920’s was that ___
48. Vacation schools and extracurricular activities are mentioned in paragraph 2 to illustrate
49. According to the passage, early-twentieth century education reformers believed that ___
50. The word “it” in last paragraph sentence 2 refers to