Present perfect 1

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  • Post category:Bahasa Inggris
  • Post last modified:October 8, 2021
  • Reading time:5 mins read

A. Study this example situation:

Tom can’t find his key.
He’s lost his key. (= He has lost …)

he has lost his key =
he lost it and he doesn’thave it now

have lost / has lost is the present perfect simple:

The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle. The past participle oft en ends in –ed (finished/decided etc.), but many verbs are irregular (lost/done/written etc.).

For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1.

B. When we say ‘something has happened’, this is usually new information:

  • Ow! I’ve cut my finger.
  • The road is closed. There’s been an accident. (= There has been …)
  • Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.

When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

  • Tom has lost his key. (= he doesn’t have it now)
  • He told me his name, but I’ve forgotten it. (= I can’t remember it now)
  • Sally is still here. She hasn’t gone out. (= she is here now)
  • I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? (= do you know where it is now?)

Compare gone (to) and been (to):

  • James is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on his way there)
  • Amy is back home now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back)

C. You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.

Just = a short time ago:

  • ‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I’ve just had lunch.’
  • Hello. Have you just arrived?

Already = sooner than expected:

  • ‘Don’t forget to pay the bill.’ ‘I’ve already paid it.’
  • ‘What time is Mark leaving?’ ‘He’s already left .’

Yet = until now. We use yet to show that we are expecting something to happen. We use yet in questions and negative sentences:

  • Has it stopped raining yet?
  • I’ve written the email, but I haven’t sent it yet

You can also use the past simple (did, went, had etc.) in the examples on this page. So you can say:

  • Ben isn’t here. He’s gone out. or He went out.
  • ‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I’ve just had lunch.’ or ‘No, I just had lunch.’

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